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Differences between Food Gathering and Food Producing that you need to know


Differences between Food Gathering and Food Producing that you need to know

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Food Gathering and Food Producing are two different approaches to meeting human food needs. These two approaches have different characteristics in terms of food sources, lifestyle, technology used, and impact on society. Following are the main differences between Food Gathering and Food Producing:

  1. Food Gathering:
    • Food Gathering is an approach where humans rely on existing food sources in the wild, such as wild plants, fruit, plants and animals that can be caught or collected.
    • Humans who practice Food Gathering generally have a nomadic lifestyle, because they have to move around to find food sources
    • The technology used in Food Gathering is limited and simple, such as stone and wooden tools for hunting and gathering food.
    • The Food Gathering’s economic system tends to be subsistence, which means they produce only enough food to meet their own needs and those of their families.
  2. Food Producing:
    • Food Producing involves humans in the active production of their food themselves through agriculture and animal husbandry. They grow plants and raise animals to get food sources.
    • Humans who practice Food Producing usually have permanent settlements and a more stable lifestyle, because they don’t have to keep moving to look for food.
    • Food Producing involves the use of more advanced technology, such as farming equipment, irrigation systems, and plant and animal breeding.
    • Food Producing economic systems tend to be more complex, and they can produce a surplus of food that can be traded or shared with the community

The main differences between Food Gathering and Food Producing are the way they obtain food, lifestyle, technology used, and the level of social and economic complexity. While Food Gathering is more simple and subsistence, Food Producing brings major changes in the way humans live and interact with nature and their society. To understand more about the differences between food gathering and food production. So you can read a more detailed explanation regarding the differences between Food Gathering and Food Producing below.

What is Food Gathering and What is Food Producing?

Food Gathering: Food Gathering is a method or approach to obtaining food that involves humans relying on food sources that exist in the wild. This includes activities such as hunting animals, collecting wild plants, fruit, roots, and other natural food sources that can be found in the surrounding environment. Humans who practice Food Gathering usually have a nomadic lifestyle, often moving around in pursuit of existing food sources. Food Producing: Food Producing is an approach to meeting human food needs by actively producing food through agriculture and animal husbandry. This involves human efforts to grow crops, such as wheat, corn, or rice, as well as raising livestock such as cows, goats, or chickens, with the aim of producing food in larger and more regular quantities. People who practice food production tend to have permanent residences and a more stable lifestyle. More advanced agricultural technologies, such as farming tools, irrigation systems, and plant and animal breeding, are often used in Food Producing. So, Food Gathering is an approach where humans rely on wild food sources, while Food Producing involves the active production of food through agriculture and livestock.

Traditional Lifestyle

The traditional lifestyle in pre-agricultural societies relies heavily on food gathering activities or Food Gathering. Pre-agricultural societies are societies that have not developed agriculture and animal husbandry as their main source of food. Instead, they rely on food sources found in the wild. The following is the important role of Food Gathering in the traditional lifestyle of pre-agricultural societies:

  1. Searching for Food Sources:
    • Food gathering was the main way for pre-agricultural societies to meet their food needs. They look for and collect various types of food that can be found in their environment, such as wild fruit, roots, nuts, mushrooms, insects, and hunt small animals.
  2. Nomadic Lifestyle:
    • The need for nomadic food sources often results in a nomadic lifestyle. Pre-agricultural societies often had to move from one place to another to follow seasonal food sources.
  3. Environmental Knowledge:
    • Food gathering requires deep knowledge about the surrounding environment, including edible plants and animals and the seasons that influence the availability of food sources.
  4. Sustainable Use of Natural Resources:
    • Pre-agricultural societies had to maintain a balance in their use of natural resources so as not to damage the environment they relied on for food. They understand the importance of sustainability in their food gathering.
  5. Gender Role Division:
    • In pre-agricultural societies, there was often a division of gender roles in food gathering activities . Men and women may have different roles in food gathering, with women often responsible for gathering plants and men for hunting.
  6. Culture and Tradition Formation:
    • Food Gathering can shape the culture and traditions of pre-agricultural societies. They may have myths, stories, and rituals associated with their food gathering activities.
  7. Limited Independence and Dependence:
    • Dependence on Food Gathering can result in independence in terms of meeting food needs, although it can also present challenges in terms of resource uncertainty.

Food gathering had a very important role in maintaining the survival of pre-agricultural societies, and these activities form an integral part of their identity and lifestyle. However, along with technological developments and social changes, many people are switching from Food Gathering to Food Producing, namely agriculture and animal husbandry, to meet their food needs.

Agricultural Revolution (Major Changes in Food Production)

Agricultural Revolution refers to the major changes in food production that occurred in human history. This is one of the most important events in the development of human society, changing the way we produce, distribute and consume food. Here are some key points about the Agricultural Revolution:

  1. The Transition from Food Gathering to Food Producing: The Agricultural Revolution marked the transition of human society from a Food Gathering (food gathering) lifestyle to a Food Producing (production food). This was a critical step in the development of human civilization, where humans began to grow plants and raise animals for agricultural purposes.
  2. Development of Agriculture and Livestock: During the Agricultural Revolution, humans began to develop agricultural techniques more sophisticated ones, such as the use of agricultural tools, irrigation systems, and the breeding of plants and animals. This allowed them to produce food in larger quantities and more regularly.
  3. Development of Permanent Settlements: Before the Agricultural Revolution, humans often lived in small, nomadic groups. However, with the development of agriculture, humans began to form permanent settlements because they needed to take care of their crops and livestock regularly.
  4. Increased Food Production and Surplus: The Agricultural Revolution resulted in an increase in food production which significant. Humans not only meet their own needs but can also produce a food surplus that can be used for exchange and trade. This changed the economy and society of society.
  5. Population Growth: With more stable and abundant food availability, the human population began to grow significantly during the Agricultural Revolution. This paved the way for the development of more complex and urban societies.
  6. Development of Social Institutions: Changes in the way food was produced also brought about changes in the social structure of society. Society began to develop more complex institutional systems, such as more organized leadership, land ownership, and regulations regarding land rights.
  7. Environmental Impact: The Agricultural Revolution also had environmental impacts, including deforestation, land change, and changing weather patterns associated with intensive agricultural practices. This is a challenge that needs to be overcome in sustainable development.
  8. Long Term Impact: The Agricultural Revolution was not just a brief change in food production but was also a historical milestone that shaped human civilization. This enabled the development of science, technology and a more advanced society.

The Agricultural Revolution occurred in different parts of the world at different time periods, depending on the region and available natural resources. However, these massive changes consistently changed the way humans lived and interacted with their environment, shaping the civilization we know today.

Food Sources

Food sources can be obtained through two main approaches: collection from natural sources (Food Gathering) and agricultural production (Food Producing). The following is a comparison between the two:

  1. Food Sources from Collecting Natural Resources (Food Gathering):
    • Main Food Sources: Humans who implement Food Gathering relies on wild food sources, such as wild plants, fruit, roots, plants, and animals that can be caught or gathered, such as hunting and fishing.
    • Nomadic Lifestyle : The Food Gathering lifestyle is often nomadic, because humans have to move around to pursue seasonal food sources.
    • Dependence on Natural Availability: Availability of food sources in Food Gatherings are greatly influenced by natural factors, such as seasons and weather. This can result in uncertainty in meeting food needs.
    • Simple Technology: The technology used in Food Gatherings tends to be simple and limited to stone tools, wood and other natural materials.
  2. Food Sources from Agricultural Production (Food Producing):
    • Cultivated Food Sources: In Food Producing, humans actively plant plants and raise animals for agricultural purposes. They rely on agriculture and animal husbandry as the main source of food.
    • Stable Lifestyle: People who practice Food Producing tend to have a more stable and permanent lifestyle, because they don’t have to move around. move in search of food sources.
    • Control Over Production: With Food Producing, humans have more control over their food production. They can plan planting seasons, manage livestock, and increase productivity.
    • Use of Advanced Technology: Food Producing involves the use of more advanced agricultural technology, such as modern farming tools, irrigation systems, and the breeding of plants and animals for better yields.
    • More Complex Economic Systems: Food Producing often involves a more complex economy, with trade in food surpluses and a greater division of social roles varies.

The choice between Food Gathering and Food Producing is greatly influenced by geographical, environmental and historical factors of society. Many modern societies are turning to food production, namely agriculture and animal husbandry, because it can produce food sources that are more stable and larger in quantity. However, there are still communities around the world that implement Food Gathering, especially in cultural and traditional contexts.

Impact of Collection and Production on the Ecosystem

Food collection and production have different impacts on the ecosystem and the surrounding environment. Here are some comparisons of how these two approaches affect the environment: Impact of Gathering on the Environment:

  1. More Distributed Impact: Food gathering usually involves taking food sources from wild nature without significantly disturbing the ecosystem. These activities are often spread across many places, and individuals or small groups take only a small portion of existing natural resources.
  2. Biodiversity Maintenance: Most societies that rely on food gathering tend to be more Be careful in maintaining biodiversity. They have in-depth knowledge of wild plants and animals and often practice sustainable harvesting to keep the ecosystem in balance.
  3. Less Impact on the Landscape: Food gathering activities do not frequently change the landscape or massively destroying wildlife habitats. This activity is often subsistence in nature, meaning it only meets the needs of a family or small group.

The Impact of Agricultural Production on the Environment:

  1. Inappropriate Land Use Intensive:Modern agriculture often requires intensive land use, including deforestation, land eviction, and major changes to the natural environment. This can cause significant ecosystem damage.
  2. Use of Pesticides and Chemical Fertilizers: In modern agricultural production, excessive use of pesticides and chemical fertilizers can pollute soil and water, damaging freshwater ecosystems , and threaten wildlife.
  3. Soil Erosion and Decreased Soil Quality: Intensive agricultural practices can cause severe soil erosion and reduced soil quality, which can reduce the soil’s ability to support plant growth and agricultural sustainability.
  4. Climate Change: Agricultural production can also contribute to climate change through greenhouse gas emissions from animal agriculture and the use of fossil fuels in modern agriculture.
  5. Biodiversity Loss: Intensive land use and the use of pesticides in agriculture can threaten biodiversity, causing the loss of plant and animal species.

It is important to note that there are various sustainable agricultural practices designed to reduce the negative impact of agriculture on the environment. This includes organic farming, soil maintenance practices, use of organic fertilizers, and other more environmentally friendly practices. Despite this, the environmental impacts of modern agricultural production remain a major concern in discussions about sustainability and natural resource conservation.

Population and Settlements

Population and settlements have an important role in shaping the structure of society and the environment. Settlement patterns and population distribution can vary based on factors such as geography, culture, and history. The following are the differences between settlement patterns and population distribution: Settlement Patterns:

  1. Urbanization vs. Urbanization Ruralization:Settlement patterns include differences between urban and rural settlements. Urban settlements are densely populated areas with urban features such as tall buildings, busy roads, and abundant public facilities. Rural settlements, on the other hand, consist of villages and rural areas that usually have smaller and more dispersed populations.
  2. Transregional Settlements: Settlement patterns can differ across regions geographical area. For example, mountainous areas, highlands, desert areas, or coastal areas have unique settlement patterns, depending on local geographic and environmental conditions.
  3. Differences in Population Density: Population density is number of inhabitants per unit of land area. Urban settlements tend to have higher population densities than rural settlements. Urban areas can be very densely populated, while rural areas are usually less densely populated.

Population Distribution:

  1. Equitable Distribution vs. Uneven:The distribution of population can be even or uneven in a region or country. Even distribution refers to a relatively uniform distribution of population throughout an area, while uneven distribution indicates that population tends to congregate in a particular area.
  2. Factors that Influence Distribution: Several factors that influence influencing population distribution including natural resources (such as water and fertile land), climate, accessibility, economic development, and socio-cultural factors. Areas that are rich in natural resources or have a good climate tend to have higher population distribution.
  3. Changes in Population Distribution: Population distribution can change over time as a result of factors such as: factors such as urbanization, migration, or changes in the economy. Areas that originally had uneven population distribution can experience changes to become more even or vice versa.
  4. Population Density: Population distribution also affects population density, namely the number of people in a particular area. Areas with a dense distribution will have a high population density, while less dense areas will have a lower density.

Settlement patterns and population distribution have significant implications in urban and rural planning, natural resource management , as well as demographic and social changes in a society. Understanding this pattern is important in making decisions related to environmental development, development and preservation.

Technological Progress

Technological progress has played an important role in increasing efficiency and productivity in Food Producing, namely food production through agriculture and livestock. More sophisticated tools and techniques have allowed humans to produce more food in more efficient ways. Following are some of the main roles of tools and techniques in Food Producing:

  1. Modern Agricultural Equipment:
    • Tractors: Tractors are very important tools in modern agriculture. They are used for plowing, tilling the land, and transporting heavy goods. Tractors equipped with GPS technology can even be used for precision farming that optimizes land and resource use.
    • Harvesting Machines: Harvesting machines are used to quickly and efficiently harvest crops, such as wheat, corn, or rice. This reduces reliance on manual labor and speeds up the harvesting process.
    • Fertilizer and Spray Equipment: Modern fertilizer equipment and pesticide sprayers can apply these materials accurately and efficiently to crops, increasing yields and reducing waste.
  2. Automatic Irrigation System:
    • Automatic irrigation system regulates water supply to plants automatically based on needs. This increases water use efficiency and allows farming in drier environmental conditions.
  3. Crop and Livestock Breeding:
    • Breeding techniques genetics has made it possible to develop plant varieties that are more resistant to disease, more productive, and better suited to certain environments. The same goes for livestock, where genetic breeding can produce more productive and disease-resistant animals.
  4. Precision Farming:
    • GPS technology and geographic information systems (GIS) are used in precision agriculture to map and manage land more efficiently. This involves real-time monitoring of crops, fertilizing based on appropriate soil fertility levels, and optimal use of fertilizer.
  5. Use of Data and Analytics:
    • Information technology and data analytics are used to monitor crop conditions, livestock health and weather forecasts. This helps farmers and ranchers make better decisions about production management.
  6. Vertical Farming and Hydroponics:
    • Vertical farming and Hydroponics is an innovative farming technique that uses technology to grow plants in limited space without soil. This allows more intensive food production in a smaller space and with more efficient use of water.
  7. Biological Pest Control:
    • Biological control techniques such as the use of natural predators and microorganisms to control plant pests have developed, reducing dependence on chemical pesticides.

Technological advances in Food Producing have helped meet food needs which continues to increase as the global population grows. However, it is also necessary to pay attention to the environmental impact and sustainability in implementing this technology to ensure that food production remains sustainable in the long term.


Sustainability is an important factor that must be considered in modern Food Production to ensure that food production not only meets current needs but is also sustainable in the long term. Here are some environmental considerations that need to be taken into account in modern Food Producing:

  1. Use of Natural Resources:
    • Water use: Efficient irrigation practices and wise water management are essential important in avoiding water waste and reducing negative impacts on water resources.
    • Land use: It is important to avoid land changes that destroy natural habitats and reduce biodiversity.
  2. Pesticides and Chemical Fertilizers:
    • Wise use: The use of chemical pesticides and fertilizers must be properly regulated to avoid water and soil pollution and reduce risks to human health.
  3. Soil Erosion:
    • Soil protection: Efforts should be made to reduce soil erosion by maintaining vegetative ground cover, implementing soil conservation techniques, and avoiding practices agriculture that damages soil structure.
  4. Waste Management:
    • Waste processing: Management of agricultural waste, including plant residues and livestock manure, must be done correctly to avoid environmental pollution and climate change.
  5. Biodiversity Maintenance:
    • Habitat preservation: Efforts should be made to maintain natural habitats, such as forests and wetlands, which are important for biodiversity.
  6. Climate Change:
    • Emissions mitigation: Agriculture can contribute to greenhouse gas emissions. Therefore, environmentally friendly agricultural techniques and more efficient use of energy should be promoted.
  7. Crop and Livestock Breeding:
    • Genetic diversity: Plant and livestock breeders must consider maintaining genetic diversity to avoid the risk of genetic losses.
  8. Sustainable Agriculture:
    • Sustainable agricultural practices such as organic farming, agroforestry and polyculture need to be encouraged and implemented.
  9. Local Agriculture:
    • Promotion of local agriculture can reduce the carbon footprint of transportation and support local communities.
  10. Education and Awareness:
    • It is important to increase farmers’ and consumers’ understanding of sustainable agricultural practices and the importance of the environment.

It is important to note that modern sustainable Food Production is a complex challenge that requires balancing the need for increased food production with minimal environmental impact. Governments, farmers, scientists and consumers need to collaborate to develop and implement more sustainable agricultural practices for a better future.

Food Variation

Food variety or menu diversification is a practice that involves consuming various types of food and nutritional sources to achieve a balanced diet and meet nutritional needs. This variation can be influenced by the Food Producing (food production through agriculture and livestock) and Food Gathering (collecting food from the wild) approaches. The following is a comparison of how menu diversification is realized in these two approaches: Menu Diversification in Food Producing:

  1. Crops Grown: In modern agriculture, Farmers can grow a variety of different crops on their land. This can include vegetables, fruits, whole grains, and nuts. This diversification allows consumers to have access to a greater variety of plant foods.
  2. Raising Livestock: In the livestock sector, diversification can include raising different types of livestock, such as cattle, sheep, chickens and goats. These various types of animals provide various types of animal products such as meat, milk, eggs and their derivative products.
  3. Processed Products: The use of technology in Food Production allows for more efficient food processing. This includes processing fruit into juice, milling wheat into flour, and processing milk into other dairy products such as yogurt and cheese.
  4. Sustainable Farming Practices: Sustainable farming, such as organic farming and agroforestry, can promote menu diversification by increasing the diversity of crops grown and reducing the use of pesticides and chemical fertilizers.

Menu Diversification in Food Gatherings:

  1. Gathering Wild Food Sources: In Food Gathering, humans seek food from the wild, which includes various types of wild plants, fruits, mushrooms, and wild animals that can be caught or collected. /li>
  2. Seasonal Availability: At Food Gatherings, menu variations are often influenced by the seasonal availability of wild food sources. For example, some plants and fruits are only available during certain seasons.
  3. Traditional Knowledge: Communities that rely on Food Gatherings often have in-depth knowledge about a variety of safe and nutritious wild foods . This knowledge can help in menu diversification.
  4. Diversification Based on Geographical Regions: Menu diversification in Food Gatherings often varies based on geographical regions. For example, coastal communities will have greater access to seafood, while people inland will tend to gather wild plants and hunt different animals.

Food variety or menu diversification can help ensure that individuals get various types of nutrients needed to maintain health and prevent malnutrition. In Food Producing and Food Gathering, it is important to promote menu diversification as part of efforts to achieve a balanced diet and good nutrition.

Differences in Consumption Patterns in Cities and Rural Areas

Urban (city) and rural (rural) life has differences in food consumption patterns due to factors such as accessibility, culture, and availability of resources. Here are some of the main differences in food consumption patterns in these two environments: Urban (City) Life:

  1. Higher Menu Diversification: Urban life often provides greater access to different types of food and restaurants offering a variety of international dishes. This can lead to greater menu diversification, and city dwellers tend to try a variety of dishes from different cuisines.
  2. Ready Foods: Busy life in the city often makes people more inclined to consume food fast food and eating out rather than cooking at home. This can lead to higher consumption of fast food, which can have a negative impact on health.
  3. More Vegetarian and Vegan Options: In cities, there are more restaurants and shops which offers a wider variety of vegetarian and vegan options, reflecting the trend towards healthier and more sustainable diets.
  4. Use of Technology in Food Purchasing: City dwellers frequently use technology such as food delivery apps and online shopping service to buy food. This allows them to choose and order food easily without having to go to the store physically.

Rural Life:

  1. Food that More Linked to Local:In rural areas, food is often more tied to seasonality and local availability. Rural residents tend to consume food grown or produced locally or around their area.
  2. Traditional Consumption Patterns: In some rural areas, food consumption patterns are still strongly influenced by culture and tradition local. Traditional foods are often valued and preserved.
  3. Own Farming: Many rural residents have access to their own farmland and can produce much of their own food. This can result in more autonomous and varied consumption patterns.
  4. Simpler Diet: Food consumption in rural areas tends to be simpler and less inclined towards fast food or processed foods. Fresh food often predominates.
  5. Dependence on Seasonal Food: In rural areas, dependence on seasonal food is often higher because food availability can be greatly influenced by weather and season.

It is important to remember that these differences are not absolute, and there are significant variations in food consumption patterns in different cities and villages around the world. Additionally, globalization has resulted in a convergence of consumption patterns, with rural communities increasingly having access to more urban food and lifestyles. However, differences in consumption patterns are still an important feature of urban and rural life that needs to be understood and appreciated.

Conclusion on the Difference between Food Gathering and Food Producing

In the comparison between Food Gathering (collecting food from

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